In most cases this means the abstract should contain four key elements. An abstract should be fully understandable on its own to someone who hasn t read your full paper or related sources.
An informative abstract acts as a summary of a paper describing its purpose methodology background results and conclusion.
How to write an abstract. Some points to consider include. And it s pretty self explanatory. Write down a few possible titles and then select the best to refine further.
The easiest approach to writing an abstract is to imitate the structure of the larger work think of it as a miniature version of your dissertation or research paper. In the body of your paper you will cite the specific literature that informs your research. And in an abstract you usually do not cite references most of your abstract will describe what you have studied in your research and what you have found and what you argue in your paper.
Your abstract should be intelligible on its own without a reader s having to read your entire paper. Since the abstract is a summary of a research paper the first step is to write your paper. Center the word abstract at the top of the page.
If you are writing your paper for a psychology course your professor may have specific word requirements so be sure to ask. Meet the word count limitation. Place your running head and page number 2 in the top right hand corner.
Spending the time needed to do this will result in a better title. Know your target word count. Put the title of your paper at the top of the page aligned left in all caps and the page number on the right.
Here s what you need to do to craft an impressive abstract. A time saving shortcut for busy researchers. Just describe your purpose problem methods results and conclusion in accordance with the format guidelines provided by your school.
Here is a step by step guide for writing an abstract of your academic paper. A summary of the content of the journal manuscript. Begin your abstract on a new page.
On the first line write abstract and center it over the body of the text. This type of abstract writing is also known as a complete abstract. An abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.
It must make sense all by itself. Have your paper ready first. Exact word counts vary from journal to journal.
3 1 write the rest of the paper. Even if you know what you will be including in your paper it s always best to save your abstract for the end so you can accurately summarize the findings you describe in the paper. Write your abstract under that as a single paragraph with no indentations.
It can t assume or attempt to provoke the reader into flipping through looking for an explanation of what is meant by some vague statement. Even though the abstract comes at the start of your paper it is written at the last as it is a summary of the entire paper. An abstract must be a fully self contained capsule description of the paper.
Ask your colleagues their opinion. It doesn t simply introduce the topic at hand but provides insight into the paper. Since you have already written your work writing an abstract should be no big deal.
An apa abstract should be 1 paragraph and approximately 250 words long. The first step is to finish writing the rest of the paper.